Early-life gut microbiome composition and milk allergy resolution
Supinda Bunyavanich, MD, MPH, Nan Shen, MS, Alexander Grishin, PhD, Robert Wood, MD, Wesley Burks, MD,d, Peter Dawson, PhD, Stacie M. Jones, MD, Donald Y. M. Leung, MD, PhD, Hugh Sampson, MD, Scott Sicherer, MD, and Jose C. Clemente, PhDa
Gut microbiota may play a role in the natural history of cow's milk allergy.
We sought to examine the association between earlylife gut microbiota and the resolution of cow's milk allergy.
We studied 226 children with milk allergy who were enrolled at infancy in the Consortium of Food Allergy observational study of food allergy. Fecal samples were collected at age 3 to 16 months, and the children were followed longitudinally with clinical evaluation, milk-specific IgE levels, and milk skin prick test performed at enrollment, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter up until age 8 years. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16s rRNA sequencing and microbiome analyses performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME), Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt), and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP).
Milk allergy resolved by age 8 years in 128 (56.6%) of the 226 children. Gut microbiome composition at age 3 to 6 months was associated with milk allergy resolution by age 8 years (PERMANOVA P 5.047), with enrichment of Clostridia and Firmicutes in the infant gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved. Metagenome functional prediction supported decreased fatty acid metabolism in the gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved (h2 5 0.43; ANOVA P 5 .034).
Early infancy is a window during which gut microbiota may shape food allergy outcomes in childhood. Bacterial taxa within Clostridia and Firmicutes could be studied as probiotic candidates for milk allergy therapy. (J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016;138:1122-30.)
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Gut microbiome of mothers delivering prematurely shows reduced diversity and lower relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus
Cecilie Dahl, Maggie Stanislawski, Nina Iszatt, Siddhartha Mandal, Catherine Lozupone, Jose C. Clemente, Rob Knight, Hein Stigum, Merete Eggesbø
Preterm birth is the main reason for neonatal deaths worldwide. We investigate whether maternal gut microbiota may play a previously overlooked role.
The Norwegian Microbiota Study (NoMIC) is a case control study on preterm birth (<259 days of gestation, calculated primarily based on the last menstrual period), including two consecutively born term infants per infant born prematurely. Eligible mothers were fluent in Norwegian and recruited from the maternity ward at a county hospital in Eastern Norway in the period 2002±2005. Fecal samples were collected at day 4 postpartum, and analysed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. We used samples from 121 mothers giving birth vaginally. Measures of alpha diversity (Shannon, Phylogenetic Diversity and Observed Operational Taxonomic Units) and microbiome composition were combined with information from the Medical Birth Registry, pregnancy journals, and questionnaires.
The association between maternal gut diversity and preterm delivery was examined using logistic regression. One IQR increase in Shannon diversity was significantly associated with 38% lower odds of spontaneous preterm birth, (95% confident interval (CI): 1%, 61%), and the association was stronger when adjusting for maternal age, marital status, ethnicity, parity, BMI, education, antibiotic use, pets in the household, income and smoking (48% lower odds, 95% CI: 4.2%, 72%). Mothers delivering prematurely also had lower abundance of OTUs belonging to Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus, and of the Clostridiales order.
Analysis of maternal gut microbiota using next-generation sequencing shows that low gut diversity, with a distinct microbial composition, is associated with spontaneous preterm delivery.
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Partial restoration of the microbiota of cesarean-born infants via vaginal microbial transfer
Maria G Dominguez-Bello, Kassandra M De Jesus-Laboy, Nan Shen, Laura M Cox, Amnon Amir, Antonio Gonzalez, Nicholas A Bokulich, Se Jin Song, Marina Hoashi, Juana I Rivera-Vinas, Keimari Mendez, Rob Knight & Jose C Clemente
Exposure of newborns to the maternal vaginal microbiota is interrupted with cesarean birthing. Babies delivered by cesarean section (C-section) acquire a microbiota that differs from that of vaginally delivered infants, and C-section delivery has been associated with increased risk for immune and metabolic disorders. This is a pilot study in which infants delivered by C-section were exposed to maternal vaginal fluids at birth. Similarly to vaginally delivered babies, the gut, oral and skin bacterial communities of these newborns during the first 30 d of life was enriched in vaginal bacteria—which were underrepresented in unexposed C-section–delivered infants—and the microbiome similarity to those of vaginally delivered infants was greater in oral and skin samples than in anal samples. Although the long-term health consequences of restoring the microbiota of C-section–delivered infants remain unclear, our results demonstrate that vaginal microbes can be partially restored at birth in C-section–delivered babies.
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